Geoffrey Greatrex Bibliography Template

This article is about the historian and author of the "Anecdota". For other uses, see Procopius (disambiguation).

Procopius of Caesarea (Greek: Προκόπιος ὁ ΚαισαρεύςProkopios ho Kaisareus, Latin: Procopius Caesariensis; c. 500 – c. 554 AD) was a prominent late antique scholar from Palaestina Prima.[1] Accompanying the Roman general Belisarius in the wars of the Emperor Justinian, he became the principal Roman historian of the 6th century, writing the Wars (or Histories), the Buildings of Justinian and the now-celebrated (and infamous) Secret History. He is commonly held to be the last major historian of the ancient Western world.

Life[edit]

Apart from his own writings, the main source for Procopius' life is an entry in the Suda,[2] a Roman encyclopaedia, written sometime after 975, which tells everything about his early life. He was a native of Caesarea in the Roman ProvincePalaestina Prima.[3] He would have received a conventional élite education in the Greekclassics and then rhetoric,[4] perhaps at the famous School of Gaza,[5] may have attended law school, possibly at Berytus (modern Beirut) or Constantinople,[6] and became a rhetor (barrister or advocate).[2] He evidently knew Latin, as was natural for a man with legal training.[7] In 527, the first year of Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian's reign, he became the adsessor (legal adviser) for Belisarius, Justinian's chief military commander who was then beginning a brilliant career.[8]

Procopius was with Belisarius on the eastern front until the latter was defeated at the Battle of Callinicum in 531[9] and recalled to Constantinople.[10] Procopius witnessed the Nika riots of January, 532, which Belisarius and his fellow general Mundus repressed with a massacre in the Hippodrome.[11] In 533, he accompanied Belisarius on his victorious expedition against the Vandal kingdom in North Africa, took part in the capture of Carthage, and remained in Africa with Belisarius' successor Solomon the Eunuch when Belisarius returned to Constantinople. Procopius recorded a few of the extreme weather events of 535–536, although these were presented as a backdrop to Roman (Byzantine) military activities, such as a mutiny, in and near Carthage.[12] He rejoined Belisarius for his campaign against the Ostrogothic kingdom in Italy and experienced the Gothic siege of Rome that lasted a year and nine days, ending in mid-March 538. He witnessed Belisarius' entry into the Gothic capital, Ravenna, in 540. Book Eight of the Wars of Justinian, and the Secret History, suggest that his relationship with Belisarius seems to have cooled thereafter. When Belisarius was sent back to Italy in 544 to cope with a renewal of the war with the Goths, now led by the able king Totila, Procopius appears to have no longer been on Belisarius' staff.

As magister militum, Belisarius was a vir illustris, and Procopius, as his adsessor, must, therefore, have had at least the rank of a vir spectabilis. He thus belonged to the middle-ranking group of the ordo senatorius. However, the Suda, which is usually well informed in such matters, also describes Procopius himself as ἰλλούστριος . Should this information be correct, then Procopius had a seat in the senate of Constantinople, which was restricted to the illustres under Justinian.

It is not known when Procopius himself died, and many historians (James Howard-Johnson, Averil Cameron, Geoffrey Greatrex) date his death to 554, but in 562 there was an urban prefect of Constantinople (praefectus urbi Constantinopolitanae) who happened to be called Procopius. In that year, Belisarius was implicated in a conspiracy and was brought before this urban prefect.

Writings[edit]

The writings of Procopius are the primary source of information for the rule of the Eastern Roman emperor Justinian. Procopius was the author of a history in eight books of the wars fought by Justinian I, a panegyric on Justinian's public works throughout the empire, and a book known as the Secret History that claims to report the scandals that Procopius could not include in his published history.

The Wars of Justinian[edit]

Procopius' Wars of Justinian (Greek: Ὑπὲρ τῶν πολέμων λόγοι, Hypèr tōn polémon lógoi; Latin: De Bellis, "About the Wars") is clearly his most important work, although it is not as well known as the Secret History. The first seven books, which may have been published as a unit, seem to have been largely completed by 545, but were updated to mid-century before publication, for the latest event mentioned belongs to early 551. The first two books (often known as the Persian War, Latin De Bello Persico) deal with the conflict between the Romans and Sassanid Persia in Mesopotamia, Syria, Armenia, Lazica and Caucasian Iberia (roughly modern-day Georgia).[13] It details the campaigns of the Sasanian Shah Kavadh I, the 'Nika' revolt in Constantinople in 532, the war by Kavadh's successor, Khosrau I, in 540 and his destruction of Antioch and the deportation of its inhabitants to Mesopotamia, and the great plague that devastated Constantinople in 542. They also cover the early career of the Roman general Belisarius, Procopius' patron, in some detail. The next two books, the Vandal War (Latin De Bello Vandalico), cover Belisarius' successful campaign against the Vandal kingdom in Roman Africa. The remaining books cover the Gothic War (Latin De Bello Gothico), the campaigns by Belisarius and others to recapture Italy, then under the rule of the Ostrogoths. This includes accounts of the sieges of Naples and Rome.

Later, Procopius added an eighth book (Wars VIII or Gothic War IV), which brings the history to 552/553, when a Roman army led by the eunuchNarses finally destroyed the Ostrogothic kingdom. This eighth book covers campaigns both in Italy and on the Eastern frontier.

The Wars of Justinian was influential on later Byzantine history-writing.[14] A continuation of Procopius' work was written after his death by the poet and historian Agathias of Myrina.

Secret History[edit]

The famous Secret History (Ancient Greek: Ἀποκρύφη ἹστορίαApokrýphe Historía, Latin: Historia Arcana) was discovered centuries later in the Vatican Library[15] and published by Niccolò Alamanni in 1623 at Lyons. Its existence was already known from the Suda, which referred to it as the Anekdota (Ancient Greek: Ἀνέκδοτα, Latin Anecdota, "unpublished writings"). The Secret History covers roughly the same years as the first seven books of the History of Justinian's Wars and appears to have been written after they were published. Current consensus generally dates it to 550 or 558, or maybe even as late as 562.

In the eyes of many scholars, the Secret History reveals an author who had become deeply disillusioned with the emperor Justinian and his wife, Empress Theodora, as well as Belisarius, his former commander and patron, and Antonina, Belisarius' wife. The anecdotes claim to expose the secret springs of their public actions, as well as the private lives of the emperor, his wife and their entourage. Justinian is portrayed as cruel, venal, prodigal and incompetent; as for Theodora, the reader is treated to the most detailed and titillating portrayals of vulgarity and insatiable lust combined with shrewish and calculating mean-spiritedness. However, it has been argued that Procopius feared that a conspiracy could overthrow the imperial power, and therefore prepared an exaggerated document in order to clear himself of all accusations of proximity to the former imperial power; if this hypothesis is correct, the Secret History cannot be seen as proof that Procopius hated Justinian and Theodora.[16]

Among the more titillating (and doubtful) revelations in the Secret History is Procopius' account of Theodora's thespian accomplishments:

Often, even in the theatre, in the sight of all the people, she removed her costume and stood nude in their midst, except for a girdle about the groin: not that she was abashed at revealing that, too, to the audience, but because there was a law against appearing altogether naked on the stage, without at least this much of a fig-leaf. Covered thus with a ribbon, she would sink down to the stage floor and recline on her back. Slaves to whom the duty was entrusted would then scatter grains of barley from above into the calyx of this passion flower, whence geese, trained for the purpose, would next pick the grains one by one with their bills and eat.[17]

Her husband Justinian, meanwhile, was a monster whose head could suddenly vanish—at least according to this passage:

And some of those who have been with Justinian at the palace late at night, men who were pure of spirit, have thought they saw a strange demoniac form taking his place. One man said that the Emperor suddenly rose from his throne and walked about, and indeed he was never wont to remain sitting for long, and immediately Justinian's head vanished, while the rest of his body seemed to ebb and flow; whereat the beholder stood aghast and fearful, wondering if his eyes were deceiving him. But presently he perceived the vanished head filling out and joining the body again as strangely as it had left it.[18]

The Buildings of Justinian[edit]

The Buildings of Justinian (Greek: Περὶ ΚτισμάτωνPerì Ktismáton, Latin: De Aedificiis, "On Buildings") is a panegyric on Justinian's building activity in the empire.[19] The first book may date to before the collapse of the first dome of Hagia Sophia in 557, but some scholars[20] think that it is possible that the work postdates the building of the bridge over the Sangarius in the late 550s. The Peri ktismaton (or De Aedificiis) tells us nothing further about Belisarius, but it takes a sharply different attitude towards Justinian. He is presented as an idealised Christian emperor who built churches for the glory of God and defenses for the safety of his subjects and who showed particular concern for the water supply. He built new aqueducts as well as restoring those that had fallen into disuse.

Historians consider Buildings to be an incomplete work, due to evidence of the surviving version being a draft with two possible redactions.[19][21]

Theodora, who was dead when this panegyric was written, is mentioned only briefly, but Procopius' praise of her beauty is fulsome. The panegyric was likely written at Justinian's behest, however, and it is doubtful that the sentiments expressed are sincere.

Due to the panegyrical nature of The Buildings, historians have discovered in several occasions discrepancies between claims made by Procopius and other primary sources. A primary example is in Procopius starting the reign of Justinian in 518, which was actually the start of the reign of Justin I, Justinian's predecessor and uncle. This discrepancy can be seen as part of Procopius' panegyric method, as it allowed him to credit buildings constructed under the rule Justin I as Justinian's accomplishments. In this context can be mentioned the renovations to the walls of Edessa after a flood in 525, along with several churches in the region, all of which were completed under Justinian's uncle. Similarly, Procopius falsely credits Justinian for the extensive re-fortifications made in the cities of Tomis and Histria in Scythia Minor, along the Danubian frontier, actual accomplishments of Anastasius I, predecessor of Justin I.[22]

Context[edit]

Procopius belongs to the school of late antique secular historians who continued the traditions of the Second Sophistic; they wrote in Attic Greek, their models were Herodotus, Polybius and especially Thucydides, and their subject matter was secular history. They avoided vocabulary unknown to Attic Greek and inserted an explanation when they had to use contemporary words. Thus Procopius explains to his readers that ekklesia, meaning a Christian church, is the equivalent of a temple or shrine and that monks are "the most temperate of Christians ... whom men are accustomed to call monks" (Wars 2.9.14; 1.7.22). In classical Athens, monks had been unknown and an ekklesia was the assembly of Athenian citizens that passed the laws.

The secular historians eschewed the history of the Christian church, which they left to ecclesiastical history—a genre that was founded by Eusebius of Caesarea. However, Averil Cameron has argued convincingly that Procopius' works reflect the tensions between the classical and Christian models of history in 6th century Byzantium. This is supported by Mary Whitby's analysis of Procopius' depiction of Constantinople and the Church of Hagia Sophia in comparison to contemporary pagan panegyrics (Buildings, Book I). Procopius can be seen as depicting Justinian as essentially God's Vicegerent, making the case for buildings being a primarily religious panegyric.[23]

Procopius indicated (Secret History 26.18) that he planned to write an ecclesiastical history himself and, if he had, he would probably have followed the rules of that genre. But, as far as it is known, the ecclesiastical history remained unwritten.

A number of historical novels based on Procopius' works (along with other sources) have been written, one of which, Count Belisarius, was written by poet and novelist Robert Graves in 1938. Procopius himself appears as a minor character in Felix Dahn's A Struggle for Rome and in L. Sprague de Camp's alternate history novel Lest Darkness Fall. The novel's main character, archaeologist Martin Padway, derives most of his knowledge of historical events from the Secret History.[24]

List of selected works[edit]

  • Procopii Caesariensis opera omnia. Edited by J. Haury; revised by G. Wirth. 3 vols. Leipzig: Teubner, 1962–64. Greek text.
  • Procopius. Edited by H. B. Dewing. 7 vols. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press and London, Hutchinson, 1914–40. Greek text and English translation.
  • Procopius, The Secret History, translated by G. A. Williamson. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1966. A readable and accessible English translation of the Anecdota. Recently re-issued by Penguin (2007) with an updated and livelier translation by Peter Sarris, who has also provided a new commentary and notes.
  • Prokopios, The Secret History, translated by Anthony Kaldellis. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 2010. This edition includes related texts, an introductory essay, notes, maps, a timeline, a guide to the main sources from the period and a guide to scholarship in English. The translator uses blunt and precise English prose in order to adhere to the style of the original text.

References[edit]

  1. ^Procopius, John Moorhead, Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing: M–Z, Vol. II, Kelly Boyd, (Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1999), 962;"Like many Byzantine scholars, Procopius affected a remarkable traditional form of writing".
  2. ^ abSuda pi.2479. See under 'Procopius' on Suda On Line.
  3. ^Procopius, Wars of Justinian I.1.1; Suda pi.2479. See under 'Procopius' on Suda On Line.
  4. ^Cameron, Averil: Procopius and the Sixth Century, London: Duckworth, 1985, p.7. ISBN 0-7156-1510-7.
  5. ^Evans, James A. S.: Procopius. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1972, p. 31.
  6. ^Cameron, Procopius and the Sixth Century, p. 6. For an alternative reading of Procopius as a trained engineer, see Howard-Johnston, James: 'The Education and Expertise of Procopius'; in Antiquité Tardive 10 (2002), 19–30.
  7. ^Procopius uses and translates a number of Latin words in the Wars of Justinian. Börm suggests a possible acquaintance with Vergil and Sallust: Börm, Henning (2007) Prokop und die Perser, p.46. Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart. ISBN 978-3-515-09052-0
  8. ^Procopius Wars of Justinian 1.12.24. Procopius speaks of becoming Belisarius' symboulos, 'advisor', in that year.
  9. ^Wars of Justinian I.18.1-56
  10. ^Wars of Justinian I.21.2
  11. ^Procopius Wars of Justinian I.24.1-58
  12. ^https://www.gutenberg.org/files/16765/16765-h/16765-h.htm Before modern times, European and Mediterranean historians, as far as weather is concerned, typically recorded only the extreme or major weather events for a year or a multi-year period, preferring to focus on the human activities of policy makers and warriors instead.
  13. ^A detailed analysis is provided by Börm, Henning: Prokop und die Perser. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2007.
  14. ^Cresci, Lia Raffaella. "Procopio al confine tra due tradizioni storiografiche". Rivista di Filologia e di Istruzione Classica 129.1 (2001) 61–77.
  15. ^http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2011/01/03/110103fa_fact_mendelsohn
  16. ^Cf. Börm (2015).
  17. ^Procopius Secret History 9.20–21, trans. Atwater.
  18. ^Procopius, Secret History 12.20–22, trans. Atwater.
  19. ^ abDowney, Glanville: "The Composition of Procopius, De Aedificiis", in Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 78: pp. 171–183; abstract from JSTOR
  20. ^Whitby, Michael: "Procopian Polemics: a review of A. Kaldellis Procopius of Caesarea. Tyranny, History, and Philosophy at the End of Antiquity", in The Classical Review 55 (2006), pp. 648–
  21. ^Cameron, Averil. Procopius and the Sixth Century. London: Routledge, 1985.
  22. ^Croke, Brian and James Crow: "Procopius and Dara", in The Journal of Roman Studies 73 (1983), 143–159.
  23. ^Whitby, Mary: "Procopius' Buildings Book I: A Panegyrical Perspective", in Antiquité Tardive 8 (2000), 45–57.
  24. ^de Camp, L. Sprague (1949). Lest Darkness Fall. Ballantine Books. p. 111. 
This article is based on an earlier version by James Allan Evans, originally posted at Nupedia.

Further reading[edit]

  • Adshead, Katherine: Procopius' Poliorcetica: continuities and discontinuities, in: G. Clarke et al. (eds.): Reading the past in late antiquity, Australian National UP, Rushcutters Bay 1990, pp. 93–119
  • Alonso-Núñez, J. M.: Jordanes and Procopius on Northern Europe, in: Nottingham Medieval Studies 31 (1987), 1–16.
  • Amitay, Ory: Procopius of Caesarea and the Girgashite Diaspora, in: Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha 20 (2011), 257–276.
  • Anagnostakis, Ilias: Procopius's dream before the campaign against Libya: a reading of Wars 3.12.1-5, in: C. Angelidi and G. Calofonos (eds.), Dreaming in Byzantium and Beyond, Farnham: Ashgate Publishing 2014, 79–94.
  • Bachrach, Bernard S.: Procopius, Agathias and the Frankish Military, in: Speculum 45 (1970), 435–441.
  • Bachrach, Bernard S.: Procopius and the chronology of Clovis's reign, in: Viator 1 (1970), 21–32.
  • Baldwin, Barry: An Aphorism in Procopius, in: Rheinisches Museum für Philologie 125 (1982), 309–311.
  • Baldwin, Barry: Sexual Rhetoric in Procopius, in: Mnemosyne 40 (1987), pp. 150–152
  • Belke, Klaus: Prokops De aedificiis, Buch V, zu Kleinasien, in: Antiquité Tardive 8 (2000), 115–125.
  • Börm, Henning: Prokop und die Perser. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2007. (Review in English by G. Greatrex and Review in English by A. Kaldellis)
  • Börm, Henning: Procopius of Caesarea, in Encyclopaedia Iranica Online, New York 2013.
  • Börm, Henning: Procopius, his predecessors, and the genesis of the Anecdota: Antimonarchic discourse in late antique historiography, in: H. Börm (ed.): Antimonarchic discourse in Antiquity. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag 2015, 305–346.
  • Braund, David: Procopius on the Economy of Lazica, in: The Classical Quarterly 41 (1991), 221–225.
  • Brodka, Dariusz: Die Geschichtsphilosophie in der spätantiken Historiographie. Studien zu Prokopios von Kaisareia, Agathias von Myrina und Theophylaktos Simokattes. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2004.
  • Burn, A. R.: Procopius and the island of ghosts, in: English Historical Review 70 (1955), 258–261.
  • Cameron, Averil: Procopius and the Sixth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.
  • Cameron, Averil: The scepticism of Procopius, in: Historia 15 (1966), 466–482.
  • Colvin, Ian: Reporting Battles and Understanding Campaigns in Procopius and Agathias: Classicising Historians' Use of Archived Documents as Sources, in: A. Sarantis (ed.): War and warfare in late antiquity. Current perspectives, Leiden: Brill 2013, 571–598.
  • Cresci, Lia Raffaella: Procopio al confine tra due tradizioni storiografiche, in: Rivista di Filologia e di Istruzione Classica 129 (2001), 61–77.
  • Cristini, Marco: Il seguito ostrogoto di Amalafrida: confutazione di Procopio, Bellum Vandalicum 1.8.12, in: Klio 99 (2017), 278-289.
  • Croke, Brian and James Crow: Procopius and Dara, in: The Journal of Roman Studies 73 (1983), 143–159.
  • Downey, Glanville: The Composition of Procopius, De Aedificiis, in: Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 78 (1947), 171–183.
  • Evans, James A. S.: Justinian and the Historian Procopius, in: Greece & Rome 17 (1970), 218–223.
  • Evans, James A. S.: Procopius. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1972.
  • Gordon, C. D.: Procopius and Justinian's Financial Policies, in: Phoenix 13 (1959), 23–30.
  • Greatrex, Geoffrey: Procopius and the Persian Wars, D. Phil. thesis, Oxford, 1994.
  • Greatrex, Geoffrey: The dates of Procopius' works, in: BMGS 18 (1994), 101–114.
  • Greatrex, Geoffrey: The Composition of Procopius' Persian Wars and John the Cappadocian, in: Prudentia 27 (1995), 1–13.
  • Greatrex, Geoffrey: Rome and Persia at War, 502–532. London: Francis Cairns, 1998.
  • Greatrex, Geoffrey: Recent work on Procopius and the composition of Wars VIII, in: BMGS 27 (2003), 45–67.
  • Greatrex, Geoffrey: Perceptions of Procopius in Recent Scholarship, in: Histos 8 (2014), 76–121 and 121a–e (addenda).
  • Howard-Johnston, James: The Education and Expertise of Procopius, in: Antiquité Tardive 10 (2002), 19–30
  • Kaegi, Walter: Procopius the military historian, in: Byzantinische Forschungen. 15, 1990, ISSN 0167-5346, 53–85 (online (PDF; 989 KB)).
  • Kaldellis, Anthony: Classicism, Barbarism, and Warfare: Prokopios and the Conservative Reaction to Later Roman Military Policy, American Journal of Ancient History, n.s. 3-4 (2004-2005 [2007]), 189-218.
  • Kaldellis, Anthony: Identifying Dissident Circles in Sixth-Century Byzantium: The Friendship of Prokopios and Ioannes Lydos, Florilegium, Vol. 21 (2004), 1-17.
  • Kaldellis, Anthony: Procopius of Caesarea: Tyranny, History and Philosophy at the End of Antiquity. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004.
  • Kaldellis, Anthony: Prokopios’ Persian War: A Thematic and Literary Analysis, in: R. Macrides, ed., History as Literature in Byzantium, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2010, 253-273.
  • Kaldellis, Anthony: Prokopios’ Vandal War: Thematic Trajectories and Hidden Transcripts, in: S. T. Stevens & J. Conant, eds., North Africa under Byzantium and Early Islam, Washington, D.C: Dumbarton Oaks, 2016, 13-21.
  • Kaldellis, Anthony: The Date and Structure of Prokopios’ Secret History and his Projected Work on Church History, in: Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies, Vol. 49 (2009), 585-616.
  • Kruse, Marion: The Speech of the Armenians in Procopius: Justinian's Foreign Policy and the Transition between Books 1 and 2 of the Wars, in: The Classical Quarterly 63 (2013), 866–881.
  • Lillington-Martin, Christopher, 2007–2017:
    • 2007, "Archaeological and Ancient Literary Evidence for a Battle near Dara Gap, Turkey, AD 530: Topography, Texts and Trenches" in BAR –S1717, 2007 The Late Roman Army in the Near East from Diocletian to the Arab Conquest Proceedings of a colloquium held at Potenza, Acerenza and Matera, Italy edited by Ariel S. Lewin and Pietrina Pellegrini, pp. 299–311;
    • 2009, "Procopius, Belisarius and the Goths" in Journal of the Oxford University History Society,(2009) Odd Alliances edited by Heather Ellis and Graciela Iglesias Rogers. ISSN 1742-917X, pages 1– 17, https://sites.google.com/site/jouhsinfo/issue7specialissueforinternetexplorer;
    • 2011, "Secret Histories", http://classicsconfidential.co.uk/2011/11/19/secret-histories/;
    • 2012, "Hard and Soft Power on the Eastern Frontier: a Roman Fortlet between Dara and Nisibis, Mesopotamia, Turkey: Prokopios’ Mindouos?" in The Byzantinist, edited by Douglas Whalin, Issue 2 (2012), pp. 4–5, http://oxfordbyzantinesociety.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/obsnews2012final.pdf;
    • 2013, Procopius on the struggle for Dara and Rome, in A. Sarantis, N. Christie (eds.): War and Warfare in Late Antiquity: Current Perspectives (Late Antique Archaeology 8.1–8.2 2010–11), Leiden: Brill 2013, pp. 599–630, ISBN 978-90-04-25257-8;
    • 2013 “La defensa de Roma por Belisario” in: Justiniano I el Grande (Desperta Ferro) edited by Alberto Pérez Rubio, no. 18 (July 2013), pages 40-45, ISSN 2171-9276;
    • 2017, Procopius of Caesarea: Literary and Historical Interpretations (editor), Routledge (July 2017), www.routledge.com/9781472466044;
    • 2017, "Introduction" and chapter 10, “Procopius, πάρεδρος / quaestor, Codex Justinianus, I.27 and Belisarius’ strategy in the Mediterranean” in Procopius of Caesarea: Literary and Historical Interpretations above.
  • Maas, Michael Robert: Strabo and Procopius: Classical Geography for a Christian Empire, in H. Amirav et al. (eds.): From Rome to Constantinople. Studies in Honour of Averil Cameron, Leuven: Peeters, 2007, 67–84.
  • Martindale, John: The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire III, Cambridge 1992, 1060–1066.
  • Meier, Mischa: Prokop, Agathias, die Pest und das ′Ende′ der antiken Historiographie, in Historische Zeitschrift 278 (2004), 281–310.
  • Pazdernik, Charles F.: Xenophon's Hellenica in Procopius' Wars: Pharnabazus and Belisarius, in Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 46 (2006), 175–206.
  • Rance, Philip: "Narses and the Battle of Taginae (552 AD): Procopius and Sixth-Century Warfare", Historia. Zeitschrift für alte Geschichte 30.4 (2005) 424-472.
  • Rubin, Berthold: Prokopios, in Realencyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft 23/1 (1957), 273–599. Earlier published (with index) as Prokopios von Kaisareia, Stuttgart: Druckenmüller, 1954.
  • Stewart, Michael, Contests of Andreia in Procopius’ Gothic Wars, Παρεκβολαι 4 (2014), pp. 21–54.
  • Stewart, Michael, The Andreios Eunuch-Commander Narses: Sign of a Decoupling of martial Virtues and Hegemonic Masculinity in the early Byzantine Empire?, Cerae 2 (2015), pp. 1–25.
  • Treadgold, Warren: The Early Byzantine Historians, Basingstoke: Macmillan 2007, 176–226.
  • The Secret History of Art by Noah Charney on the Vatican Library and Procopius. An article by art historian Noah Charney about the Vatican Library and its famous manuscript, Historia Arcana by Procopius.
  • Whately, Conor, Battles and Generals: Combat, Culture, and Didacticism in Procopius' Wars Leiden, 2016.
  • Whitby, L. M. "Procopius and the Development of Roman Defences in Upper Mesopotamia", in P. Freeman and D. Kennedy (edd.), THe Defence of the Roman and Byzantine East, Oxford, 1986, 717-35.

External links[edit]

Texts of Procopius[edit]

  • Complete Works, Greek text (Migne Patrologia Graeca) with analytical indexes
  • The Secret History, English translation (Atwater, 1927) at the Internet Medieval Sourcebook
  • The Secret History, English translation (Dewing, 1935) at LacusCurtius
  • The Buildings, English translation (Dewing, 1935) at LacusCurtius
  • The Buildings, Book IV Greek text with commentaries, index nominum, etc. at Sorin Olteanu's LTDM Project
  • Works by Procopius at Project Gutenberg
  • Works by or about Procopius at Internet Archive
  • H.B. Dewing's Loeb edition of the works of Procopius: vols. I-VI at the Internet Archive (History of the Wars, Secret History)
  • Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society (1888): Of the buildings of Justinian by Procopius, (ca 560 A.D)
  • Complete Works 1, Greek ed. by K. W. Dindorf, Latin trans. by Claude Maltret in Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae Pars II Vol. 1, 1833. (Persian Wars I–II, Vandal Wars I–II)
  • Complete Works 2, Greek ed. by K. W. Dindorf, Latin trans. by Claude Maltret in Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae Pars II Vol. 2, 1833. (Gothic Wars I–IV)
  • Complete Works 3, Greek ed. by K. W. Dindorf, Latin trans. by Claude Maltret in Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae Pars II Vol. 3, 1838. (Secret History, Buildings of Justinian)

Secondary material[edit]

Homepage of/Site web/Retejo de Geoffrey Greatrex

Professeur titulaire, D�partement d'�tudes anciennes et de sciences des religions, Universit� d'Ottawa

Professor, Department of Classics and Religious Studies, University of Ottawa

Former Honorary Research Fellow, Department of Religious and Theological Studies, University of Wales, Cardiff

Honorary Senior Research Fellow, Department of Ancient History, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia

Member of the Collegium Editorum for the Byzantine emperors on the De Imperatoribus romanis site

Fratulo de/Fellow of La Esperanto-Asocio de Britio/The British Esperanto Association

Prezidanto de/President of/Pr�sident de Kanada Esperanto-Asocio (2004-5)

Quelques renseignement sur mes recherches/ Some information on my research

Liens pertinents aux cours/Course-related links

Liens francophones

Research-related links

  • NEW!res doctae, Dokumentenserver der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu G�ttingen, where the important series Forschungen zur byzantinischen Rechtsgeschichte may be found
  • The catalogue of the popular British Classics journal Omnibus
  • Ctesiphon : corpus de textes concernant l'Iran au VIe s.
  • The Project Volterra site at University College, London, with some useful legal material material in particular
  • NEWManar al-Athar website, images of the Near East and beyond for teaching, based at Oxford
  • Herodotus' Histories, a site of the Open University, U.K.
  • Publications of the Metropolitan Museum, New York, available in pdf
  • Lexikon zur byzantinischen Gr�zit�t
  • Mark Handley's extremely useful Late Antique & Early Medieval Inscriptions website
  • NEWThe Roman Law Library at Grenoble, by Y. Lassard & A. Koptev, where both the Theodosian & Justinianic codes may be found
  • The Last Statues of Antiquity (LSA) Database at Oxford
  • Une liste de tous les p�riodiques concernant le monde antique qui se trouvent dans les biblioth�ques universitaires � Ottawa
  • Steve Muhlberger's Late Antiquity in the Mediterranean site
  • The Patristics bibliography at the University of Laval
  • The ORB site for Medieval Studies
  • NEWAn annotated bibliography of Syriac resources on-line
  • A virtual tour of Rome in A.D. 320
  • David Woods' site on Military Martyrs of antiquity
  • A site dedicated to Christianity in the fourth century
  • Sasanika, a site dealing with the history & culture of the Sasanians
  • The resources page of the Classics department at Trent University, which offers a comprehensive range of Classics and ancient history resources on the web
  • The Dumbarton Oaks website
  • Syriac resources on the D.O. website
  • A comprehensive bibliography on Syriac Christianity put together by the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
  • 'Curculio', a website with on-line texts and commentaries on Claudian and Propertius
  • The De Imperatoribus Romanis site
  • Le site du Centre Libanios (Montpellier)
  • The Latin library: a survey of Latin texts and translations available on the web
  • Regesta Imperii, a German site at Mainz with excellent bibliographies for the Middle Ages, incl. Late Antiquity
  • Propylaeum, an excellent German portal for Classical and Byzantine studies
  • A web version of the Peutinger Table
  • "Centralisation and Particularism in Late Antiquity", the website of a German-led project of the Late Antique network
  • A German site with Late Antique links
  • The Virtual Catalogue of Ancient Coins
  • The Roman history database of the Bulletin Analytique de l'Histoire Romaine at Strasbourg
  • Titelsuche on the Gnomon database site
  • The early church fathers website, including translations of Socrates, Sozomen, Eusebius and others
  • Early Church fathers: additional works, including Zachariah of Mytilene, John of Ephesus, Zosimus, Evagrius, Philostorgius, Photius, Antiochus Strategius and John of Nikiu; also available through this link at a different address
  • Patrologia Orientalis, vols. 2-3, 6-19 and others
  • An overtly Catholic website that offers all of Migne (Patrologiae latinae et graecae), at any rate in Latin
  • Fourth-Century Christianity at Wisconsin Lutheran College, an up-to-date guide to the Arian controversy above all, with translations and bibliography
  • The Bohn translation of Ammianus into English from the Church Fathers website (previous link)
  • An extremely useful link to texts etc. available on Googlebooks
  • A selection of classical sources in translation at Calgary
  • The Catholic Encyclopaedia
  • The Theodosian Code
  • An English tr. of the Chronicle of Isidore of Seville
  • The Codex Justinianus
  • Le site du centre d'Histoire et Civilisation de Byzance au CNRS
  • An excellent bibliographical survey of the reign of Justinian (in German)
  • Neue Forschungen zur Sp�tantike (1990-2002), complementing Demandt's 1989 work
  • Das D�lger-Institut der Universit�t Bonn, concerned with late antiquity and the journal RAC
  • The Encyclopaedia Iranica, letters A to H
  • A HREF = "http://latininscriptions.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/">Latin inscriptions in the Ashmolean museum, Oxford
  • Prosopographie des Sasanidenreiches im 3. Jahrhundert n. Chr., based at Kiel
  • Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL), a biographical/bibliographical register for church history (from early to modern times)
  • Textes pour l'histoire de l'Antiquit� tardive, un site bas� � l'universit� de Paris X (Nanterre)
  • The Roman Provincial Coinage on-line site, a comprehensive database of Roman provincial coinage of the Antonine era
  • Digital Roman heritage, a site to do with the literary, artistic and physical legacy of Rome
  • Classics resources, a very useful site that gathers together links to (e.g.) texts,epigraphic resources, numismatic sources etc.
Pages offering links to further Late Antique sitesLinks to the geography & cartography of the ancient worldAdministrative links
  • A list of Canadian Classics departments compiled by K. Kinzl, cf. that of the CAC
  • The homepage of the CAC
  • Le site web de la SEAQ, la Soci�t� des �tudes Anciennes du Qu�bec
  • The homepage of the Institute of Classical Studies (London)
  • The homepage of the American Philological Association
  • The catalogue of the Bodleian library at Oxford University
  • CUBE, the library catalogue of Carleton University, Ottawa
  • Voir plus haut pour le catalogue de la biblioth�que nationale du Canada
  • Le catalogue de la biblioth�que publique d'Ottawa
  • The British Museum's Compass site, displaying some of the items on show there
  • The Society for the Promotion of Byzantine Studies site (in the U.K.)
  • The website of the Association of Ancient Historians
  • Electronic resources available at the University of Oxford
  • A virtual tour of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, a most impressive site
  • The webpages of the CAUT
  • Classics Info, a site offering information on conferences and seminars in the U.K. and further afield
  • A listing of jobs and studentships available in the U.K.
  • The University of Florida Classics resources page, with some very useful links
  • The homepage of the British School at Rome
  • The Vindolanda Tablets online
  • The site of the Open University's excavations at Carthage
  • British Academy PORTAL, an online resource on the humanities and social sciences
  • Akropolis World News, a site offering today's news in classical Greek

Sites with images of classical sites on the web

Journals available on the web

  • The homepage of the �cole fran�aise d'Ath�nes; on the left-hand column, the two digital libraries (biblioth�ques num�riques, PERS�E and CEFAEL ) contain pdf versions of many important journals, such as Bulletin de Correspondance hell�nique and the M�langes de l'�cole fran�aise � Rome
  • A complete list of journals in Classics, together with their abbreviations (as used by L'ann�e philologique)
  • The Ancient History Bulletin is no longer available on the web unfortunately
  • Bryn Mawr Classical Review
  • ANISTORITON, Journal of History, Archaeology, Art History
  • Cahiers des �tudes anciennes, revue qu�b�coise
  • Digressus, an on-line British Classics journal run by graduate students
  • Electronic Antiquity
  • English Historical Review � partir de novembre 1998
  • G�ttinger Forum f�r Altertumwissenschaft (GFA)
  • Humanities. Sozial- und Kulturgeschichte, a site at the Humboldt University in Berlin which has numerous book reviews
  • Le site de l'Ann�e Philologique
  • Plekos, a German on-line review journal
  • The Bryn Mawr Classical Review
  • Classics Ireland
  • Revue des Etudes Byzantines, jusqu'en 2005
  • Histos
  • The Syriac journal Hugoye
  • The homepage of the journal Phoenix
  • The new on-line Byzantine journal Parekbolai
  • The new on-line French journal Revue des �tudes Tardo-antiques, (RET)
  • The on-line Byzantine journal Symmeikta
  • The German on-line review journal sehepunkte
  • Rheinisches Museum, 1827-2007, in pdf format
  • Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies (GRBS), full text from 2004 onwards
  • Proceedings of the British Academy, vol.141 (2007), a volume on The Translation to Late Antiquty on the Danube and Beyond
  • Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenl�ndischen Gesellschaft

Esperanto links

  • The first links are for those interested in the language / Les premiers liens sont pour ceux et celles qui s'int�ressent � la langue
  • 'Esperanto: Like a Native', a short presentation featuring fluent speakers (subtitled)
  • Esperanto estas, a series of short films about the language
  • Pourquoi l'esp�ranto n'as pas vraiment conquis le monde?, un excellent court documentaire produit par Le Monde
  • Esp�ranto: une langue neutre et �quitable, un court film produit par TFO en Ontario, sur le groupe d'Ottawa
  • La fina venk', a song in Esperanto by i.d.c., une chanson en esp�ranto par i.d.c.
  • Frequently asked questions about Esperanto
  • An interview I did with Chinese Radio in Havana, July 2010
  • The home pages of the World Esperanto Association (U.E.A.)
  • The home pages of the Canadian Esperanto Association
  • 'Eventeo', a world news service in Esperanto, kiu vere bonaspektas kaj liveras aktualajn informojn
  • Le Monde diplomatique in Esperanto
  • Teleskopo, a learned journal in Esperanto, published in Brazil
  • Livera folio, satira pagxaro en Esperanto
  • Esperanto tra la mondo, franca retejo, kiu donas ligojn al aro da aliaj ejoj
  • The home page of the British Esperanto Association
  • The website of Polish Radio (in Esperanto)
  • A map illustrating imminent Esperanto meetings
  • La retejo de La Brita Esperantisto
  • A list of all radio broadcasts in Esperanto
  • Arkivoj de la revuo de JEB, Saluton
  • Vikipedio: La reta enciklopedio en Esperanto
  • Libera Folio, movada bulteno
  • Reta vortaro
  • Artikoloj el Nederlando tradukitaj en Esperanton

Links connected with my research

  • The page which accompanies the book, The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars, A.D. 363-630 by G. Greatrex and S.N.C. Lieu (London: Routledge, 2002)
  • The bibliography for my article on 'Dukes of the Eastern Frontier' which appeared in Wolf Liebeschuetz Reflected, ed. B. Salway & J. Drinkwater (London: ICS, 2007), p.87-98
  • 'The Classical Past in the Classicising Historians', a paper I delivered at the 1996 Open University Conference on 'The reception of Classical Texts and Images'
  • 'The background and Aftermath of the Partition of Armenia in A.D. 387', Ancient History Bulletin 14 (2000), 35-48, now available here, with the assistance of Prof. K. Kinzl, following the removal of AHB from the web.
  • 'The two fifth-century wars between Rome and Persia', the first article I published (in Florilegium 12 [1993], 1-12)
  • My entry on Justin I's wife Euphemia for the De imperatoribus romanis site
  • My entry on the wife of Leo I, Aelia Verina for the same site; also now Aelia Eudocia, wife of Theodosius II, and Pulcheria
  • The site associated with my book, Rome and Persia at War, 502-532 (Leeds, 1998)
  • My article on 'Assessores kaj historiistoj en la malfrua romia imperio' (Assessores and historians in the later Roman empire), published in Jura Tribuno Internacia 2 (1998), in both the original Esperanto and an English translation
  • The English version of my article on 'El paganismo en el siglo VI' that appeared in debats 90 (Autumn 2005), 79-85
  • Une traduction de quelques sections des Guerres perses, livre I, de Procope
  • My article on 'The early years of Justin I's reign in the sources', which appeared in Electrum 12 (Krakow, 2007), 99-113.
  • My article (in Esperanto) on Procopius, titolita, Prokopio de Cezareo, enigma historiisto de la epoko de Justiniano (sesa jarcento p.K.)
  • The website associated with my book (with R. Phenix, C. Horn), The Chronicle of Pseudo-Zachariah Rhetor (Liverpool, 2011)
  • My review of P. Wood, 'We have no king but Christ': Christian Political Thought in Greater Syria on the Eve of the Arab Conquest (c.400-585), which is best consulted on this BMCR blog site, where my additional comments are posted
  • The conference book for the tenth Shifting Frontiers in Late Antiquity/Fluctuation des fronti�res dans l'Antiquit� Tardive, held in Ottawa, 21-24 March 2013/qui a eu lieu � Ottawa, 21-24 mars 2013

Links to useful bookshops

Other links

  • Simon Davies' commendably bizarre website
  • The website of the Chart of the Flops
  • The website of John Shuttleworth, versatile singer/songwriter
  • The Great Eastern website (Newfoundland's Cultural Magazine)
  • The website of The Guardian and The Observer
  • Undying King Games, a website where several interesting strategic games are to be found
  • 'Early Modern Italy' site, offering a comprehensive bibliography on Italian history, A.D. 1550-1800
  • The website of the BBC
  • Sprig of Heather, a site offering translation and secretarial services
  • Capital Home Inspection, a company offering home inspections in Ottawa, Canada, and the surrounding area
  • The Williams street Gibberbooks, a fantastically bizarre compendium of nonsense for which I bear some responsibility (but not much)

Derni�re mise � jour de cette page: le 9 mars 2018. This page last updated on 9 March 2018.

En bas, le nombre de visiteurs est calcul� depuis le 12 mars 2005. The number of visitors below is calculated from 12 March 2005.

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