1. The first letter of every new sentence is capitalized.
Example: My mother is from Seoul. My father grew up in Taegu.
2. The pronoun I is always capitalized.
Example: Robert and I are going to discuss the political situation.
3. Titles of people are only capitalized when they are followed by someone’s name.
Example: That is the president of the United States.
That is President Bush.
4. Proper names of places, specific buildings, rivers, mountains, and other geographic locations are capitalized.
Example: A: That is a long river.
B: Yes, it is. That is the Nile River, which runs through Africa.
I go to church every week. I go to the First Baptist Church of New York.
5. Proper names of people.
Example: This is my friend. Her name is Jennifer.
6. All proper names of: things, companies, religions, deities, and languages.
Intel wants to hire people who speak Spanish and French.
7. Capitalize the days of the week, months, and holidays.
Valentine’s Day is on Monday, February 14th.
8. Capitalize names of documents, organizations, clubs, and historical events.
Example: The Declaration of Independence made the king of England very angry. This eventually started the United States Revolutionary War.
9. Direction words (north, south, east, and west) should only be capitalized when they refer to a region or section of a country.
Example: The West offers lots of job opportunities.
A: How do I get to the Moonlight Restaurant?
B: Go west 3 blocks. It is on the right.
Capital letters are used at the beginning of the following kinds of words.
1. the names of days, months and public holidays. The names of seasons do not usually begin with capital letters.
- Sunday; Monday; Friday
- January; March, August
- Christmas; Easter;
- summer; autumn; winter; spring
2. the names of people and places, including stars and planets
- John; Mary; Alice
- India; Tokyo; Paris; Singapore
- Jupiter; Mars; Neptune
- (But the earth, the sun and the moon)
3. people’s titles
- Mr Smith; Dr James; the Chairman; the Managing Director
4. nouns and adjectives referring to nationalities and regions, languages, religions and ethnic groups
- He is French.
- She is Spanish.
- He is a Sikh.
- Chinese history
5. the first word in the title of books, magazines, plays, pictures, magazines etc. Sometimes other nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs in the title also begin with capital letters.
- The Adventures of Tom Sawyer or The adventures of Tom Sawyer
- Gone with the Wind OR Gone with the wind
We normally change an adjective into an adverb by adding -ly.
- Late – lately
- Real – really
- Right – rightly
- Definite – definitely
- Hopeful – hopefully
- Complete – completely
There are some exceptions to this rule.
- True – truly (NOT truely)
- Full – fully (NOT fullly)
- Due – duly (NOT duely)
Y and I
The final -y in an adjective changes to -i- before adding -ly.
- Happy – happily
- Merry – merrily
- Easy – easily
Adjectives ending in consonant + le
-le changes to -ly after a consonant
- Idle – idly
- Noble – nobly
Adjectives ending in -ic
Adjectives ending in -ic, have adverbs ending in -ically.
- Tragic – tragically
- Phonetic – phonetically